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Understanding ADHD: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis


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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects many children around the world. It is characterized by symptoms such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention, which can significantly impact a child’s daily life and development.

As a parent, we know it can be challenging to understand and navigate your child’s behavior, especially if they have been diagnosed with ADHD. In this article, we will provide an overview of ADHD, its symptoms, causes, and available treatments.

We hope to equip parents with a better understanding of this disorder, as well as strategies to support their child’s development and success.

Remember: It is important to seek help from a qualified healthcare professional if you suspect that you or a loved one may have ADHD.

What is ADHD?

ADHD, or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts individuals of all ages across the world. It is a complex disorder that can be challenging to manage and cope with.

ADHD is marked by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that can have significant impacts on an individual’s daily life, relationships, and academic or professional success.

ADHD is marked by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that can have significant impacts on an individual’s daily life, relationships, and academic or professional success.

The good news, however is that there are various treatment options available to help manage and reduce the symptoms of ADHD. These can include medication, behavioral therapy, and lifestyle changes. With the proper treatment and support, individuals with ADHD can lead fulfilling and successful lives, achieving their goals and aspirations.

How prevalent is ADHD in Canada?

Statistics reveal that, in Canada, ADHD affects approximately 1.8 million people, or 4-6% of adults and 5-7% of children, making it one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in the country.1

ADHD affects approximately 5%-9% of children and 3%-5% of adults, and is considered the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children.

While research has made long strides in understanding the nature and causes of ADHD, there is still much to uncover about this disorder. Understanding more about this condition can be very helpful for parents with children who have been diagnosed with ADHD, or caregivers of patients with this disorder.

Here, we will provide an overview of the history, symptoms and diagnosis of ADHD, along with some of the latest statistics and study results.

What causes ADHD?

The exact cause of ADHD is still not fully understood, but research suggests that it is likely a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurological factors.

Some possible causes of ADHD include:

  1. Genetic factors: Studies have shown that ADHD tends to run in families, and there may be a genetic component to the disorder. If a parent or sibling has ADHD, the risk of a child developing ADHD is higher.
  2. Environmental factors: Exposure to environmental toxins, such as lead, during pregnancy or early childhood, may increase the risk of ADHD. Additionally, maternal smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight have also been associated with an increased risk of ADHD in children.
  3. Neurological factors: Brain imaging studies have shown that there may be differences in the brain structure and function of individuals with ADHD. These differences may affect the areas of the brain that are responsible for attention, impulse control, and behavior regulation.

What are the symptoms of ADHD?

The symptoms of ADHD can vary depending on the subtype of ADHD (inattentive type, hyperactive-impulsive type, or combined type) and the age of the individual.

They can also manifest in different ways, with some individuals primarily exhibiting symptoms of inattention, while others may mainly display symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity and yet others experiencing a combination of both symptom types.2

The key factor is that, while many people may encounter some level of inattention, unfocused motor activity, and impulsivity in their lives, these behaviors are typically more severe and have frequent occurrences in individuals with ADHD.

ADHD symptoms can significantly disrupt and lower the quality of individuals’ social interactions, academic performance, or job productivity.

Here’s what each of the three common symptoms of ADHD may include:

Inattention: People with symptoms of inattention may experience the following:

  • Difficulty staying focused or sustaining attention
  • Struggling with organization and task completion
  • Difficulty following instructions or comprehending information
  • Trouble with memory and forgetfulness
  • Distractibility and being easily overwhelmed by stimuli

Hyperactivity: Individuals with symptoms of hyperactivity may exhibit the following:

  • Restlessness and excessive movement, even in inappropriate situations
  • Difficulty sitting still or engaging in quiet activities
  • Fidgeting, tapping, or other repetitive behaviors
  • Inability to play or engage in hobbies quietly
  • Feeling driven by a motor or being constantly in motion

Impulsivity: People with symptoms of impulsivity may display the following:

  • Acting without thinking or considering consequences
  • Interrupting others or speaking out of turn
  • Difficulty waiting for their turn
  • Making impulsive decisions or acting on sudden urges
  • Desire for immediate gratification

How is ADHD diagnosed?

Diagnosing ADHD involves a comprehensive evaluation by a qualified healthcare professional, such as a pediatrician, psychiatrist, or psychologist. This is necessary to diagnose ADHD, as other conditions or environmental factors can cause similar symptoms.

Primary care providers can diagnose and treat ADHD, but they may refer individuals to a mental health professional for further evaluation.

To receive a diagnosis of ADHD, symptoms must be chronic, impair functioning, and cause developmental delays. Children are often diagnosed during elementary school, but adolescents and adults can also receive a diagnosis if their symptoms have been present since childhood.

The evaluation may include:

  1. Medical History: The healthcare professional will gather information about the child’s medical history, including any family history of ADHD or other related conditions.
  2. Behavioral Assessment: The healthcare professional may use rating scales, questionnaires, and interviews to assess the child’s behavior and symptoms in various settings, such as home and school.
  3. Physical Exam: A thorough physical exam may be conducted to rule out any underlying medical conditions that may be causing or contributing to the child’s symptoms.
  4. Diagnostic Criteri
  5.  The child’s symptoms will be compared to the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) published by the American Psychiatric Association, which is widely used for diagnosing mental health disorders, including ADHD.
  6. Additional Testing: In some cases, additional testing, such as cognitive testing, may be recommended to assess the child’s cognitive functioning and rule out other conditions that may be presenting with similar symptoms.

What treatments and therapies are recommended for ADHD?

While there is no cure for ADHD, currently available treatments may reduce symptoms and improve functioning. Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments.

  • Psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions

ADHD can have a significant impact on a person’s life and their family. Psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions can be helpful in managing symptoms and improving everyday functioning. Mental health professionals can provide education about ADHD and its impact on families, as well as help children and their parents develop new skills and ways of relating to each other.

  • Behavioral therapy

Behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that aims to help a person change their behavior by teaching practical assistance, such as organizing tasks, completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally challenging events. It also involves monitoring one’s own behavior, giving oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way, and receiving feedback from parents, teachers, and family members on certain behaviors.

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

Cognitive behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that can help individuals with ADHD improve focus, concentration, and adjust to the life changes that come with treatment. CBT involves learning to recognize and challenge negative thoughts and beliefs that can contribute to ADHD symptoms.

  • Social skills training

Social skills training can help individuals with ADHD improve their ability to interact with others and manage social situations. This type of therapy may involve role-playing exercises, group discussions, and other techniques to help individuals build social skills and confidence.

  • Family and marital therapy

Family and marital therapy can help family members and spouses find productive ways to handle disruptive behaviors, encourage behavior changes, and improve interactions with the person with ADHD. This type of therapy may involve communication training, problem-solving techniques, and other strategies to help families work together and support each other.

  • Parenting skills training

Parenting skills training, such as behavioral parent management training, can teach parents how to encourage and reward positive behaviors in their children and use a system of rewards and consequences to change their child’s behavior. This type of therapy may involve teaching parents specific skills to manage their child’s behavior, as well as strategies for promoting positive family interactions.

  • Classroom management interventions and academic accommodations

Specific behavioral classroom management interventions and academic accommodations have also been shown to be effective for managing symptoms and improving functioning at school and with peers. These interventions may include changing the physical layout of the classroom, providing additional support and resources for students with ADHD, and developing individualized education plans (IEPs) to help students meet their academic goals.

  • Stress management techniques

Stress management techniques, such as support groups, can benefit parents of children with ADHD by increasing their ability to deal with frustration and connect with others who have similar problems and concerns. These groups may provide a place to share experiences, learn coping strategies, and find emotional support. It is important to note that all types of therapy for children and teens with ADHD require active parental involvement.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about ADHD

Q: How common is ADHD in Canada?

According to the Centre for ADHD Awareness Canada (CADDAC), ADHD affects approximately 1 in 21 Canadians, or roughly 1.8 million individuals. Statistically, this means some 4-6% of adults and 5-7% of children have ADHD.1

Q: What are the treatment options for ADHD?

Treatment for ADHD may include behavioral therapy, medication, and/or supportive strategies. The most appropriate treatment plan will depend on the individual’s age, symptoms, and severity of the condition.

Q: How can I support my child with ADHD at home?

 Some strategies that can help support a child with ADHD at home include:

  1. Establishing a routine: Creating a consistent daily schedule for your child can help them with structure and predictability, which can be beneficial for managing their ADHD symptoms.
  2. Setting clear expectations: Clearly communicating expectations and rules to your child, and reinforcing them consistently, can help them understand what is expected of them and promote positive behaviors.
  3. Providing a conducive environment: Creating an environment that is conducive to focusing and minimizing distractions can be helpful for children with ADHD. This may include having a designated homework or study area, reducing visual and auditory distractions, and providing tools such as noise-cancelling headphones or fidget tools.
  4. Encouraging regular physical activity: Physical activity has been shown to have positive effects on ADHD symptoms. Encouraging regular physical activity, such as outdoor play, sports, or other physical activities, can help your child manage their energy levels and improve focus.
  5. Collaborating with school and healthcare professionals: Working closely with your child’s school and healthcare professionals can help ensure that your child receives appropriate support and accommodations, such as an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) or a 504 plan, to help them succeed academically and socially.


Understanding the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of ADHD is crucial for parents to effectively support their child with ADHD. By being aware of the potential causes, recognizing the symptoms, and seeking appropriate professional evaluation and support, parents can help their child with ADHD thrive.

Remember to work closely with healthcare professionals, collaborate with your child’s school, and provide a supportive home environment to help your child manage their ADHD symptoms and reach their full potential.


  1. Centre for ADHD Awareness Canada (CADDAC), About ADHD
  2. National Institute of Mental Health, Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)